The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a crushing defeat for Pakistan, which led to it losing roughly 56,000 square miles (150,000 km 2 ) of territory as well as losing millions of its citizens to the newly created state of Bangladesh .  In addition to the psychological setback for Pakistan,  it had failed to gather any significant material support or assistance from its key allies, the United States and the People's Republic of China.   Pakistan seemed to be isolated internationally, and in great danger; it felt that it could rely on no one but itself.  Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was "obsessed" with India's nuclear program .   At a United Nations Security Council meeting, Bhutto drew comparisons between the Instrument of Surrender that ended the 1971 war, and the Treaty of Versailles , which Germany was forced to sign in 1919. There, Bhutto vowed never to allow a repeat.