So I would argue, in the spirit of Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, that while The Federalist Papers are among the best essays ever written on representative government, they would not be as good as they are, or as many essays as there are, if it were not for the persistent critique of the Antifederalists who helped define the American conversation over what should government do, which level of government should do it, and which branch of that level of government should do it. Those questions are what the Essential Antifederalists bring to the conversation.
Searches (Gang Involvement)
The ACLU of California brought a lawsuit against police and officials of James Logan High School in Union City who, in 2002, rounded up 60 students to question and search without any kind of reasonable suspicion that they had broken a law or school rule. After being removed targeted during the lunch hour, they were sent to separate classrooms based on their race or ethnicity where they were searched, interrogated and photographed. The police took the photographs back to the police station. The suit says they were searched for evidence of possible gang involvement because of their racial or ethnic background or how they dressed and who their friends were. In 2005 the city and New Haven Unified School District agreed to a settlement which put in place new rules governing interactions between police and students. The police agreed to destroy the photos and other documents taken during the search, and not to engage in racial or ethnic profiling on or off campus. School officials agreed that that they would not again detain students for the purpose of searching, photographing or questioning them based on race, appearance, or associations. They also agreed only to search students and their lockers when they have specific reason to believe the law or a school rule has been broken, and only to involve the police when the safety of people on campus was threatened or when they have reason to believe the law has been broken.