DEGREE OF AGREEMENT . In formal logic,
"deductive" inference implies certainty. But in scientific hypothetico-deduction,
deductive inference often produces probabilistic predictions. For example,
a genetics theory may predict that 25% of offspring will have a recessive variation
of a trait.
Often, observation also involves uncertainties, such as random fluctuations; and data collection may involve subjective decisions such as assigning specimens into categories. For many experiments, a reliable estimate for degree of agreement requires the use of sophisticated techniques for data analysis that take into account the sample size, variability, and representativeness, and the statistical nature of predictions and observations. These techniques produce a probabilistic answer, not a simple yes or no. For example, scientists could estimate the agreement for a theory that a certain variation is recessive, when 4 of 20 offspring (instead of the predicted 5-of-20) have this variation.
African American studies
Atlantic World history
Civil War studies
Literary Fiction (two titles a year)
Louisiana history and culture
Southern environmental history
Southern social justice issues
World War II