India – seventh-largest country by area, located on the Indian subcontinent in South Asia . India was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation , and is the birthplace of four world religions— Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , Jainism . India endured colonization , eventually being administered by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century. India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was mainly non-violent resistance , led by influential figures like Mahatma Gandhi , and underwent a violent partition . India is the second-most populous country with over billion people , and is also the most populous democracy in the world.