Madison changed such views when he himself became a partisan in the 1790s. Believing that Hamilton's financial, economic and diplomatic plans for the young republic were both bad policy and contrary to the letter and spirit of the Constitution, he organized an opposition in Congress that was called "Mr. Madison's party." This became the basis for the nation's first organized national political party, the Democratic Republicans, led by Madison and Jefferson in opposition to the policies of president John Adams. Their party efforts in the press and through local political clubs helped to bring about Jefferson's defeat of Adams in the presidential election of 1800.
The phrase "market socialism" has occasionally been used in reference to any attempt by a Soviet-type planned economy to introduce market elements into its economic system. In this sense, "market socialism" was first attempted during the 1920s in the Soviet Union as the New Economic Policy (NEP) before being abandoned. Later, elements of "market socialism" were introduced in Hungary (where it was nicknamed " goulash communism "), Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia (see Titoism ) in the 1970s and 1980s. The contemporary Economy of Belarus has been described as a "market socialist" system. The Soviet Union attempted to introduce a market system with its perestroika reforms under Mikhail Gorbachev . During the later stages there was talk within top circles that the USSR should move toward a market-based socialist system.
A continuing controversy surrounding the political message of the novel and its view of human nature has led some readers to challenge its status as a book suitable for children. The American Library Association thus positioned Lord of the Flies at number 70 on its list of the 100 most challenged books of 1990-2000. Among literary critics of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, however, Lord of the Flies has been revisited less as an allegory of human evil than as a literary expression of Cold War ideology. This historicizing does not do justice to the novel. But in terms of reception history, contemporary critics are right to note that the novel's position at the center of many English curricula across America and Great Britain during the Cold War illustrates how the pedagogy of literature has been used to bolster national identity and ideology.