There are hints, however, that the husband-wife dynamic may be relatively immune to generational shifts in gender roles. Ashley Randall, a relationships researcher in counseling psychology at Arizona State University, found that most couples tend to interact in a similar gender pattern across a wide age-range, independent of how long they had been together. “In my research on how men and women cooperate,” she says, “women lead the way. Men tended to follow the woman’s emotion.” When the female partner was more negative, Randall observed, the male became negative. When she was positive, he became positive. But even in that study, women would try to adjust the emotional milieu to achieve peace or a solution. If , for example, the man acted negatively and said, “I’m not excited about this subject,” his partner might suggest another way of dealing with it. “Wives really matter when it comes to regulating emotional negativity in conflict,” Randall says.
Chapter 2, The Geography of Happiness is written by John F. Helliwell, Hailing Huang and Shun Wang. This chapter reports the happiness of nations measured by life evaluations. It includes color coded maps and an analysis of six factors the account for the differences: (1) social support in terms of someone to count on in times of need, (2) GDP per capita (income), (3) live expectancy (in terms of healthy years), (4) sense of corruption in government and business (trust), (5) perceived freedom to make life decisions, and (6) generosity. The first three factors were found to have the biggest impact on a population’s happiness. Crisis ( natural disasters and economic crisis) the quality of governance, and social support were found to be the key drivers for changes in national happiness levels, with the happiness of nations undergoing a crisis in which people have a strong sense of social support falling less than nations where people do not have a strong sense of social support.