One new study in Zambia has shown success in prevention efforts. The study reported that urban men and women are less sexually active, that fewer had multiple partners and that condoms were used more consistently. This is in line with findings that HIV prevalence has declined significantly among 15-29 year-old urban women (down to % in 1999 from % in 1996). Although these rates are still unacceptably high, this drop has prompted a hope that, if Zambia continues this response, it could become the second African country to reverse a devastating epidemic.
There came to be international discussion about why HIV rates in Africa were so high, because if the cause were known, then prevention strategies could be developed. Previously, some researchers had suggested that HIV in Africa was widespread because of unsafe medical practices which somehow transferred blood to patients through procedures such as vaccination, injection, or reuse of equipment. In March 2003, the WHO released a statement that almost all infections were, in fact, the result of unsafe practices in heterosexual intercourse. 
In addition to the many scholarship opportunities offered to students with HIV/AIDS, there are a number of programs dedicated to providing financial assistance to students who are pursuing degrees and careers in the healthcare industry with an emphasis on the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. These programs are more limited in their scope, and will only apply to those students enrolled in a degree program in nursing or healthcare at an accredited college or university. These scholarships target the financial needs of future healthcare providers, and do not necessarily require the applicants to be HIV positive themselves.