In Germany the situation was almost the opposite. While cultural factors favoured the women's movement, they were handicapped by a repressive political system. Most of Germany was Protestant and among the political parties the. Social Democrats gradually adopted women's causes, including the vote in 1891 and equal pay in 1896. They also recruited as many as 141,000 female members by 1913. However, the German Socialists were not really feminists; they simply used women as allies in their campaign to reform the Bismarckian political system. Middle class feminists realised this and therefore set up separate organisations, including the Association of German Women in 1894 and the German Union for Women's Suffrage in 1901. But the price of independence was marginalisation. For all its vigour German politics remained rather ineffectual; for a time the Socialists had been banned by Bismarck, and the voting rights possessed by men carried little real influence. Thus, like the Russians, German feminists really awaited the overthrow of the system in order to achieve equal rights with men. Defeat in the First World War accelerated this development by replacing the Kaiser's rule with the democratic Weimar Republic.
The Global Commission on Drug Policy includes Kofi Annan, Richard Branson, and the former presidents of Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Poland, Portugal and Switzerland. They broke new ground with their initial report in 2011 by advancing and globalizing the debate over drug prohibition and its alternatives. Their subsequent report, released in September 2014, not only reiterates their demands for decriminalization, alternatives to incarceration, and greater emphasis on public health approaches – but also calls for responsible legal regulation of currently-illegal drugs.
It all started in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Then, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria-Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria-Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.