In both the Byzantine and Western Roman Empire's the complex and well thought out systems of government contributed to the success of the empires. Since the Roman system of government was devoloped 400 years before the Byzantine government, Byzantine officals borrowed some of the Roman Laws. These Roman laws were called the Justinian Code, which was a legal system that helped the Byzantine Empire survive for many years. This code, created by emperor Justinian, consisted of four main parts. The Code,5000 working laws, the Digest, explains why they exist, the Institues, text book for lawyers, and the Novellae, room for new laws. Another part of the government that both the Byzantine and thr Western Roman Empire had in common was a civil service. Augustus first established a civil service in the Roman Empire in 27 . It was a system that pays workers who are skilled at their jobs to work for the government. This idea was carried to the Byzantine Empire where a bureacury, exactly like a civil service, was set up. Another major part of both empires was their strong and loyal army. The army was used for defending the vast empires as well as expanding it by conquering new teritories. The Byzantine Empire expanded to almost the size of the Roman Empire due to its relentless army. This army conquered parts of North Africa, Rome, Italy and Spain. Without the army, the Byzantine Empire wouldn't have been so large. The system of government that included Roman Law, the civil serive and the army was passed from the Westerm Roman Empire to the Byzantine Empire once hte Roman Empire collapsed.
Women generally did not actively participate in trade and were confined to household duties however evidence of women engaging in weaving and spinning, working as fruit and vegetable vendors, herb gatherers and kourisses (women who dressed other women's hair employed either privately or in public baths). Women could also have the option of being physicians and midwives. Some served food in guest houses and taverns. Although women were excluded from priesthood, they had a special place in monasteries. Many nunneries in the Byzantine Empire were run by female abbots.
In the East, the effect of the Crusades on women was also evident. When the crusaders first occupied Jerusalem in 1099, women and children were among the thousands who were killed. Anna Comnena , daughter of the Byzantine emperor, documented the arrival of the uneducated barbarians who arrived from the West, supposedly to liberate Constantinople from the threat of Seljuk Muslim raids. Looting and raiding for supplies more often than not were the result of these innumerable Frankish armies which swept into Byzantine lands.