Deirdre McCloskey: Well, very slowly. I mean, I was at Harvard college. You know, Bernie Sanders and Jeremy Corbyn and I, in say 1960, we’re about the same age, we all had the same opinion. Capitalism is the problem, let’s have a revolution. The problem is that those two guys haven’t changed their opinion. I’ve changed my opinion on lots of things, including my gender. [00:17:00] But I then became a Keynesian because that was what was on offer in the economics department. I wanted to help the poor, so I became an economist. And then I became a kind of social engineer. We were gonna come down to Washington. In Harvard at graduate school, we were gonna fine tune the economy [inaudible 00:17:22].
The fear that some felt at the time was that these philosophers’ dangerous, yet nuanced ideas would fall into the hands of lesser minds, who would bastardize Nietzsche and Schopenhauer and poison the rest of us. Which aptly fits the description of Ayn Rand, whose philosophy developed out of her admiration for “Supermen” like Hickman. Rand’s philosophy can be summed up by the title of one of her best-known books: The Virtue of Selfishness . She argues that all selfishness is a moral good, and all altruism is a moral evil, even “moral cannibalism” to use her words. To her, those who aren’t like-minded sociopaths are “parasites” and “lice” and “looters.”
ARI has taken many controversial positions with respect to the Muslim world . They hold that the motivation for Islamic terrorism comes from their religiosity, not poverty or a reaction to Western policies.  They have urged that the . use overwhelming, retaliatory force to "end states who sponsor terrorism", using whatever means are necessary to end the threat.  In his article "End States Who Sponsor Terrorism", which was published as a full page ad in The New York Times , Peikoff wrote, "The choice today is mass death in the United States or mass death in the terrorist nations. Our Commander-In-Chief must decide whether it is his duty to save Americans or the governments who conspire to kill them." Although some at ARI initially supported the invasion of Iraq, it has criticized how the Iraq War was handled.  Since October 2, 2001, the institute has held that Iran should be the primary target in the war against "Islamic totalitarianism".  In response to the Muhammad cartoons controversy , ARI started a Free Speech Campaign in 2006.