In contrast to his strong stand against South Carolina, Andrew Jackson took no action after Georgia claimed millions of acres of land that had been guaranteed to the Cherokee Indians under federal law, and he declined to enforce a . Supreme Court ruling that Georgia had no authority over Native American tribal lands. In 1835, the Cherokees signed a treaty giving up their land in exchange for territory west of Arkansas , where in 1838 some 15,000 would head on foot along the so-called Trail of Tears . The relocation resulted in the deaths of thousands.
Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States (1829-1837), was the first to come from poverty. The youngest of three sons of Scotch-Irish immigrants, he grew up in rural South Carolina and attended local schools before leaving school to join the Army at age 13 during the American Revolution. He was in a battle and was later captured by the British, making him the only president to have been a prisoner of war. Jackson was magnetic and charming but with a quick temper that got him into many duels, two of which left bullets in him. He was the first person to represent Tennessee in the . House of Representatives, and he also served in the . Senate and on the Tennessee Superior Court (the state's highest court). He was a heroic Army general before eventually becoming president.
After moving to Nashville, Jackson became a protege of William Blount , a friend of the Donelsons and one of the most powerful men in the state. Jackson became attorney general in 1791, and he won election as a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention in 1796.  When Tennessee achieved statehood that year, he was elected its only . Representative . The following year, the state legislature elected him as . Senator . He resigned within a year. While in Philadelphia, then the nation's capital, Jackson aligned himself with the Democratic-Republican Party , and he strongly opposed the Jay Treaty .  In 1798, with strong support from western Tennessee, he was elected to serve as a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court ,  at an annual salary of $600.  Jackson's service as a judge is generally viewed as a success and earned him a reputation for honesty and good decision making.  Jackson resigned the judgeship in 1804 and returned full-time to his business interests. His official reason for resigning was ill health. He had been suffering financially from poor land ventures, and so it is also possible that he wanted to return full-time to his business interests.